Volume 2, Issue 3, September 2017, Page: 86-96
Food Security Situation in Ethiopia: A Review Study
Abduselam Abdulahi Mohamed, Department of Agricultural Economics, College of Agriculture and Veterinary Science, Ambo University, Ambo, Ethiopia
Received: Jan. 6, 2017;       Accepted: Jan. 20, 2017;       Published: Mar. 2, 2017
DOI: 10.11648/j.hep.20170203.11      View  4348      Downloads  510
Food security is a dynamic concept, which has continuously integrated new dimensions and levels of analysis over the years; this reflects the wider recognition of its complexities in research and public policy issues. Food security is achieved when all people, at all times, have physical and economic access to sufficient, safe and nutritious food that meets their dietary needs and food preferences for an active and healthy life. Food insecurity occurs at individuals, households or nation level that has neither physical nor economical access to the nourishment they need. Food insecurity is an enduring, critical challenge in Ethiopia which is Africa’s second populous country after Nigeria. The 2015 El Niño drought is one of the strongest droughts that have been recorded in Ethiopian history were more than 27 million people became food insecure and total population of 18.1 million people require food assistance in 2016. As indicated by Africa Food Security and Hunger Multiple Indicator Scorecard, Ethiopia ranked first in having the highest number of people in state of undernourishment which is 32.1 million people in 2014. World Food Program found long-term effects of chronic malnutrition cost Ethiopia approximately 16.5 percent of its GDP in each year. The number of food insecure people in the country increasing from time to time; which was estimated to 2.9 million in 2014 and 4.5 million in August, 2015 and by the end of the same year this figure had more than doubled to 10.2 million food insecure people. Drought and land degradation, population pressure, instability and armed conflict are major sources of food security problems in Ethiopia. To cope with these problems Ethiopian people use sale of livestock, agricultural employment, and migration to other areas, requesting grain loans, sales of wood or charcoal, small scale trading and limiting size and frequency of meal as major coping mechanisms.
Food Security, Food Insecurity, Undernourishment, Drought, Shocks
To cite this article
Abduselam Abdulahi Mohamed, Food Security Situation in Ethiopia: A Review Study, International Journal of Health Economics and Policy. Vol. 2, No. 3, 2017, pp. 86-96. doi: 10.11648/j.hep.20170203.11
Copyright © 2017 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/) which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
AFI (2012), “Harvest help-Africa food issues”. http://www.harvesthelp.org.uk/causes-of-food-insecurity-in-africa-and-other-third-world-counties.html.
African Development Bank (2014), “Africa Food Security Brief: Special focus on climate Africa Food Security change Impacts”. Statistics Department, Issue No 5, April 2014.
Ahmed (2015), “Food insecurity and coping strategies of Agro-pastoral households in Babile district of Somali regional state”: M.Sc. Thesis. Haramaya University, Ethiopia.
Anderson et al., (2015), “USAID Office of Food for Peace Food Security Country Framework for Ethiopia FY 2016 – FY 2020”. Washington, D.C.
Andersson, C., A. Mekonnen, and Stage. J. (2009), “Impacts of the Productive Safety Net Program in Ethiopia on livestock and tree holdings of rural households”. Environment for Development Discussion Paper Series 09-05. Washington, D.C.
Asefa, S. and T. Zegaye (2003), “Rural poverty, food insecurity and environmental degradation in Ethiopia: A case study from South Central Ethiopia”. Proceedings of the International Conference on Development Studies in Ethiopia, July 1-12, 2003, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.
Barrett and Sahn C. (2001), “Income Diversification and Livelihood in Rural Africa: Cause and Consequence of Change”. Food Policy 26(4), 315-333.
Berhane, G., Hodinott, J., Kumar N, Taffesse A S, Diresse M T, Yohannes Y, Sabates-Wheeler R, Handino M, Lind J, Tefera M, and Feyera S. (2011), “Evaluation of Ethiopia’s Food Security Program: Documenting Progress in the Implementation of the Productive Safety Net Program and the Household Asset Building Program”. IFPRI. Washington, D.C.
CARE (2014), “Achieving food and nutrition security in Ethiopia”. Finding from the CARE Learning Tour to Ethiopia, January 19-24, 2014, CARE, Washington, DC. pp: 1-15.
Catley et al. (2016), “USAID/Ethiopia Agriculture Knowledge, Learning, Documentation and Policy Project”. No. 663-13-000006: implemented by the Feinstein International Center, Friedman School of Nutrition Science and Policy, Tufts University.
Clay, E. (2002), “Food security: Concepts and measurement. Paper for FAO Expert Consultation on Trade and Food security”: Conceptualizing the Linkages, Rome, 11-12 July 2002, pp: 1-7.
Christensen, J. H., B. Hewitson, Sarr, and P. Whetton. (2007), “Regional Climate Projections”. In: S. Solomon, D. Qin, M. Manning, Z. Chen, and H. L. Miller (eds). Climate Change 2007: Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
CSA (2013), “Population Projection of Ethiopia for All Regions at Woreda Level from 2014 – 2017”. Addis Ababa. Ethiopia.
Devereux S. (2010), “Food Insecurity in Ethiopia”. Department for International Development.
Devereux S. (2000) “Food Insecurity in Ethiopia”. A discussion paper for DFID.
Devereux, Stephen. Vital B., and Haunstein Swans (2008), “Seasons of hunger: fighting cycles of quiet starvation among the world’s rural poor”. Pluto Press, London.
DFID (2014), “Annual Review”: Ethiopia Productive Safety Net Programme.
DPPC (Disaster Prevention and Preparedness Commission of Ethiopia) (2011), “Food Security Prospect in 2011”. Early Warning System. Report.
Duffour, K. (2010), “The Budget statement and economic policy of the government of Ghana for the 2011 financial year”. Presented to Parliament on Wednesday, 18th November, 2009, Accra, Republic of Ghana, pp: 1-52.
ECSA and WFP (2014), “Comprehensive Food Security and Vulnerability Analysis”. Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.
Endalewet at., (2015) “Assessment of Food security Situation in Ethiopia: Asian Journal of Agricultural Research, 9(2), pp: 55-68.
Eneyew and Bekele (2011), “Cause of household food insecurity in Wolayta. Journal of stored product and postharvest Research, Vol. 3 (3), pp: 35-48.
FAO/WFP (2010), “State of Food Insecurity in the World”. Rome: FAO/WFP.
FAO (2005), “Assessment of the world food security situation”. Committee on World Food Security, Thirty-First Session, May 23-26, 2005, Food and Agriculture Organization, Rome, Italy.
FAO (2008), “Climate change and food security”: a framework document, Food and Agriculture Organization, Rome, Italy.
FAO _ (2010), “The State of Food Insecurity in the World 2010: Addressing Food Insecurity in Protracted Crises”. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome, Italy ISBN-13: 9789251066102, Pages: 57.
FAO _ (2015),“El Niño Response Plan 2016”. Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.
Farah (2015), “Intensity and Determinants of Pastoral Household Food Insecurity in Somali Regional state: The case of Harshin District: MSc Thesis. Haramaya University, Ethiopia.
Fisseha, K., (2014), “Food insecurity and the relative importance of various household assets. The case of farm households in Southern Ethiopia”. MSc Thesis, Swedish University Agricultural Sciences. [Accessed on January 29, 2015].
Gilligan, D.O., J. Hoddinott and A.S. Taffesse (2008), “An analysis of Ethiopia’s productive safety net program and its linkages”. Report for the International Food Research Institute, Washington, DC., February 15, 2008, pp: 1-42.
Hadji and Gelaw (2012), “Determinants of the recent soaring Food Inflation in Ethiopia. Universal Journal of Education and General Studies.pdf [Last access 19.01.2014].
Hart, Tim. (2009), “Exploring definitions of food insecurity and Vulnerability: time to refocus Assessment. Agrekon, vol 48 No.4.
Hoddinott (1999), “Choosing outcome indicators of household food security”. International food policy research institute. Washington D.C. USA. M. phil in Social Change Thesis. NTNU, Dragvoll.
Hussein, W. and P. Janekarnkij (2013), “Determinants of rural household food security in Jigjiga district of Ethiopia”. Kasetsart J. (Soc.Sci.), 34: 171-180.
IFPRI (2009), “Development Strategy and Governance Division, International Food Policy Research Institute”: Ethiopia Strategy Support Program 2. (http://www.ifpri.org/book-757/ourwork/program/ethiopia-strategy-support-program or http://www.edri.org.et/.)Accessed on October, 2009.
Jrad, S., B. Nahas and H. Baghasa (2010), “Food security models”. Policy Brief No. 33, Ministry of Agriculture and Agrarian Reform, National Agricultural Policy Center, Syrian Arabic Republic, August 2010, pp: 1-32.
Loening, J. L., D. Durevall and Y. A. Birru (2009), “Inflation Dynamics and Food Prices in an Agricultural Economy”: The Case of Ethiopia. Policy Research Working Paper 4969. World Bank.
Kebede (2008), “Gender, Household Food security and Coping strategies: MSc Thesis. Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia.
Kuwornu, J.K.M., A. Mensah-Bonsu and H. Ibrahim (2011), “Analysis of foodstuff price volatility in Ghana”: Implications for food security. Eur. J. Bus. Manage., 3: 100-118.
MoARD (2007), “Horn of Africa consultations of food security, country report”. Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development, Government of Ethiopia, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.
MoARD (2009), “Ethiopian Food security program (2010-2014)”. Final August 2009.
MoARD (2010), “Productive Safety Net Program Implementation Manual”. Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.
MoARD (2014), “Practical guideline Manual for development agent in Ethiopia”. Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.
Oxfam International (2010), “The Rain Doesn’t Come in Time Anymore. Poverty, Vulnerability, and Climate Variability in Ethiopia”. Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.
Relief & Rehabilitation Commission (1985), “The Challenges of Drought: Ethiopia's Decade of Struggle in Relief and Rehabilitation”. Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.
Sewnet (2015), “Cause and Coping mechanisms of food insecurity in rural Ethiopia: Agriculture and Biology Journal of North America, 6(5), pp: 123-133.
Tilaye, T.D. (2004), “Food insecurity: Extent, determinants and household coping mechanisms in Gera Keya Woreda, Amhara region”. M.A Thesis. Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia.
UNICEF (2014), “Ethiopia humanitarian situation report”. htt://www.unicef.org/Ethiopia/UNICEF_Ethiopia_SitRep_3_May_and_June_2014_pdf
UNICEF (2015), “Humanitarian appeal report”. Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.
WFP (2014), “Global food security update: Tracking food security trends in vulnerable countries”. World Food Programme, Issue 13, February 2014.
WFP and CSA (2014), “Comprehensive food security and Vulnerability Analysis in Ethiopia”. Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.
WFP-Ethiopia (2009), “Vulnerability Assessment and Mapping (VAM). Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.
Webb, P., von Braun, J., and Yohannes, Y. (1992) Famine in Ethiopia: Policy Implications of Coping Failure at National and Household Levels. International Food Policy Research Institute. Research Report No. 92. Washington, D.C.: IFPRI.
World Bank (2010), “Natural Hazards, Natural Disasters”: The Economics of Effective Prevention. Washington DC: IBRD/World Bank.
World Bank _ (2012), “World Bank Support for Social Safety Net to Benefit 8.3 million Ethiopians by 2015”. Press Release No: 2012/366/AFR. Washington, DC: World Bank.
World Bank (2014), “World Bank Open Data”. Washington, DC.
Browse journals by subject